This name uses Spanish guzman forex market customs: the first or paternal family name is Caldera and the second or maternal family name is Rodríguez. Retrato de Rafael Caldera – Biblioteca La Casona.
Venezuelan politician who served as the 56th and 63rd President of Venezuela from 1969 to 1974 and again from 1994 to 1999. Caldera taught sociology and law at various universities before entering politics. When he was sworn into office in 1969, it marked the first peaceful transfer of power from one party to another in Venezuela’s history. During his first presidency, Caldera was able to pacify the country by granting an amnesty that allowed guerrilla fighters, who had been operating clandestinely for almost a decade, to reincorporate into society and participate in politics. Rafael Caldera, was born in San Felipe, Yaracuy.
His parents were Tomás Rafael Caldera Izaguirre and Rosa Sofía Rodriguez Rivero. Orphaned at a young age, he was adopted by his aunt Maria Eva Rodriguez Rivero, who was married to lawyer Tomás Liscano, and became part of a wealthy Venezuelan Roman Catholic family. Due to his education, Caldera was fluent in languages including French, English, Italian, while being somewhat fluent in German and Portuguese. Caldera was secretary of the Venezuelan Catholic Youth. In 1936 he participated in the formation of the National Student Union, which on 1 October 1938 became the political party Electoral Action. Caldera was COPEI’s unsuccessful candidate for president again in 1963.
He ran for a third time in 1968, and was successful this time, winning 29 percent of the vote. However, Venezuela does not have a provision for a runoff election, so this was enough to make Caldera the first president from COPEI. Caldera benefited from a split in AD. Senate president Luis Beltrán Prieto Figueroa won the party primary.
However, the party’s old guard felt Prieto was too left-wing, and intervened to deliver the nomination to Gonzalo Barrios. When Caldera was sworn in as president on 11 March 1969, it marked the first time in Venezuela’s 139 years of independence that an incumbent government peacefully surrendered power to an elected member of the opposition. However, COPEI still had a minority in the legislature. Caldera’s first government emphasized the end of the Betancourt doctrine, which denied Venezuelan diplomatic recognition to any regime, right or left, that came to power by military force. Caldera also reformed the 1961 Constitution to remove a ban on election to public office for people who had been sentenced to more than three years in prison, which had been specifically designed to politically disqualify General Marcos Pérez Jiménez, by means of its retroactive application. Caldera, who raised the tax on the rent to the oil companies to 60 percent, initiated the construction of El Tablazo petrochemical complex, in Zulia State.
In 1969, the new government inherited a country with active urban and rural guerrilla movements, bans on two important political parties and many political leaders imprisoned. From the beginning of Caldera’s presidency, this practice was suspended and constitutional guarantees thereafter were maintained. The government was reported to have an attitude of ideological pluralism and dialogue across the political spectrum, entered into talks with the armed groups, legalized leftist parties and released jailed politicians, demanding only that they stay within Venezuelan law. As result from this violent-means effort, by the end of Caldera’s presidency, for the first time in many years, no significant political organization in Venezuela planned to threaten the ruling class by attempting to take control of the government by violent means. At the 1973 elections, leaders of the old guerrilla movements who had not died or disappeared and had negotiated with the AD-COPEI consensus, were elected as senators and deputies.
Under the 1961 constitution, Caldera was not allowed to seek reelection for 10 years. In 1987 stood for the COPEI nomination for the 1988 presidential election, being defeated by Eduardo Fernández. We cannot ask to people with hunger to immolate themselves for a democracy that has not been able to give them enough to eat. National Congress on 4 February 1992, the date of the first failed coup d’état against the second government of Carlos Andrés Pérez. In his second presidency, Caldera included politicians from other political backgrounds who supported his candidacy in his cabinet, like some representatives of MAS party, Teodoro Petkoff at the Ministry of the Central Office of Coordination and Planning, and Pompeyo Márquez at the Border Ministry, as well as some independents in other ministries. The confidence and credibility of Venezuelans and foreigners at the financial institutions were affected seriously.
More than seventy thousand medium and small companies went bankrupt, fundamentally due to the exchange rate regime imposed by the government, which made it difficult to obtain the currency to acquire intermediate goods. The prices of food, clothes and transport rose without control, impoverishing a greater number of Venezuelans. Caldera also had to handle a vertiginous inflationary spiral and a parallel reduction of the Forex reserves, employees generously for the support of the bolívar in front of the U. Although Caldera promised during his campaign never to accept the help of the International Monetary Fund, his government rescinded the vow due to the economic crisis.
In 1997, a tripartite commission, consisting of representatives of industrialists, workers and the Government, assumed the reform of the regime of social benefits, and the deep revision of the labor law. The tripartite commission created a system of social benefits. Apertura Petrolera was adopted to increase involvement of the private sector and international oil companies in the operation, exploration and refinement of petroleum and natural gas. The worldwide oil market crisis negatively influenced this process. Due to differences with his coalition partners such as MAS, Caldera looked for the support of AD in Congress. Some AD members entered the Ministerial cabinet.